Science fact file book 2 david coppock teacher guide

 

    Science Fact file Teaching Guide 2. Anjum Afshan Mannan Science Fact file Workbook 3. David Coppock New Get Ahead Science Book 8. Farooq Lal. David Coppock. Science Fact File Second Edition is an updated series of science textbooks written for students in Pakistan who Students' Book and Workbooks; Photocopiable worksheets and assessment activities; Further learning sections. Science Fact file Teaching Guide 2. Anjum Afshan Fact file Workbook 3. David Coppock . International Secondary Science Student Book 2. Philippa Gardom.

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    Science Fact File Book 2 David Coppock Teacher Guide

    Science Fact file Workbook 2 [David Coppock] on hentamanqueto.ga Each book contains a combination of topics from physics. containing further learning and assessment materialsComprehensive Teacher's Guides are available for each level. List of books by David Coppock stored on this site. Integrated Science 1 Teacher's Guide. , , " Science Fact file Workbook 2. Oxford For secondary classes Science Fact file 3 Teaching Guide David Coppock . Cerebrum 1 2 3 4 5 reading a book solving a math problem writing a story.

    Part 1 Ourselves Unit 3 The lungs Teaching objectives: To define respiration To explain in detail the working of the three main organs of the respiratory system To explain, using a diagram, the process of inhalation and exhalation To emphasize the harmful effects of tobacco on the health Key vocabulary: inhale, exhale, ribcage, diaphragm, trachea, bronchi, alveoli, mucus, cilia, contract, expand Materials needed: large chart of lungs, goats lungs, rubber pipe, tub of water, balloons, rubber bands, a two-litre plastic bottle, flexible plastic tubing, Y-shaped hose connector Advanced preparation: Arrange for goats lungs to be brought to the lab from the butcher before Lesson 2. Lesson 1: 40 min Introduction: 5 min Exploratory activity Ask the pupils to draw an outline of the human body and trace the path of the air inside the body. Since this is an exploratory activity, the pupils should be given the freedom to draw their own understanding of the journey of air inside the body. Ask a few volunteers to share their ideas. Main teaching Ask the pupils to take deep breaths. Do you know where the air that you breathe in goes? Discuss: Why do we need to breathe?

    Explain effectively the functions of the diaphragm and ribs in inhalation and exhalation, with the help of a 3-D animation clip found at the various websites. Show them the goats lungs. Keep the lungs in a tub of water. Ask them to blow up the lungs using a rubber pipe and to observe how they expand and contract when they inhale or exhale.

    Alternatively, the related worksheet can be attempted. Main teaching: 30 min Activity a Ask the pupils to work on Activity 1 on page 18 of the textbook. Detailed instructions for this activity are on page 12 of this guide.

    Engage them in a discussion about the harmful effects of smoking on the health. As soon as people become regular smokers, they become addicted to the nicotine in cigarettes. This makes them want to continue smoking.

    There are many different chemicals in cigarette smoke, some of which are poisonous, and some can cause lung cancer. What is passive smoking? When someone is smoking, the smoke they blow out into the air can be breathed in by anyone who is near them.

    The smoker is actively inhaling this poisonous smoke, while people near him are passive smokers. Although they are not smoking, they are actually inhaling the smoke of the active smoker.

    Passive smoking is as harmful as active smoking. Wind up: 5 min The pupils can attempt any of the exercises on pages 16 and 17 of the textbook to reinforce the concepts that they have learned. True mucus oxygen, carbon dioxide ribcage Respiration is the process of obtaining oxygen from the air and its use by cells to produce energy. True 3. False 2. False 3. True 6. True diaphragm trachea alveoli or air sacs 10 1 2. The main function of the lungs is to provide the body with the oxygen it needs to produce energy from food.

    Oxygen is needed to produce energy from food. Mucus is a sticky substance produced by the nose and trachea. Its function is to trap dust particles and some bacteria before the air enters the lungs. The tiny hairs in the trachea, called cilia, sweep out the dust caught in the mucus.

    They help to keep the lungs clean. The diaphragm is a sheet of muscle which separates the lungs from the abdomen. It helps the lungs to expand and contract when we breathe in and out. Working model of the lungs Procedure a Gather the materials listed on page 8 of this Teaching Guide and refer to the diagram on page 18 of the textbook.

    Use the tape to make an airtight seal around the area where the tubing and the hose connector meet. Tightly wrap the rubber bands round the places where the balloons and hose connector meet.

    The seals should be airtight. Place the balloons and hose connector structure inside the bottle, threading the plastic tubing through the neck of the bottle. Use the tape to seal the opening where the plastic tubing goes through the narrow opening of the bottle at the neck. The seal should be airtight. Gently pull down on the balloon from the knot. This should cause air to flow into the balloons within your lung model. What did you observe? Release the balloon with the knot and watch as the air is expelled from your lung.

    Your breath contains water vapour. When this water vapour comes into contact with a cold surface, such as a windowpane, it condenses, forming many small water droplets on the glass. People breathe in water when it accidentally goes into the windpipe rather than into the food pipe.

    Discuss any experiences pupils may have had of accidentally breathing in water.

    Science Fact file Book 2

    The pupils should prepare their own anti-smoking posters. The health of our lungs and the entire respiratory system is affected by the quality of the air we breathe. In addition to oxygen, this air contains other substances such as pollutants, which can be harmful. Some health problems caused by air pollution are difficulty in breathing, wheezing, and coughing. Unit 4 The human heart Teaching objectives: To introduce the heart as a muscular organ which pumps blood around the body To explain the structure of the heart and identify its components To introduce, step by step, the basic process of the circulation of the blood in the heart Key vocabulary: chamber, atrium, ventricle, valve, septum, stethoscope, heartbeat, pulse rate Materials: chart of heart, stethoscope, stop watch, goats heart, magnifying glass, red and blue inflated balloons Optional: Invite a heart specialist as a guest speaker to talk to the pupils about some heart disorders and to give some practical advice on how to help keep the heart healthy.

    Model this to them. Ask them which organ in the body is about the size of a fist. Explain: The heart is about the size of your fist and is located between your lungs. It is a muscular pump whose function is to pump blood to all parts of the body. The blood carries oxygen from the air we breathe, and nutrients from the food we eat, to all of the cells of the body.

    The blood travels through tubes called blood vessels. There are two kinds of blood vessels, arteries and veins. Sometimes we can see the arteries and veins in our arms and hands. Main teaching: 5 min Explain that by checking their pulse, they can find out how many times their heart beats each minute.

    Help the pupils find their pulse by placing the index and middle fingers of their right hands on their left wrists, on the side nearest to the thumb. This could be challenging for some pupils, and you will have to circulate and help them.

    If they cannot find it in the wrist, see if they can find it in the throat. Once all of them have found their pulse, ask them to count the number of times the pulse beats in 15 seconds. Record the numbers in a table on the board. Ask the pupils to predict what will happen to their pulse rate when they exercise.

    Will it get faster, slower, or stay the same? The pulse rate increases while exercising. Explain: Even in your sleep, the heart keeps beating, or pumping blood. If it stopped, a person would quickly die. The heart is divided into two sides, separated by the septum.

    The left side of the heart is filled with oxygen-rich oxygenated blood, while the right side of the heart is filled with oxygen-poor deoxygenated blood. Each side of your heart is divided further into two chambers known as the atrium, and the ventricle, which means there is a total of four chambers in the heart.

    Read pages 19 and 20 of the textbook. Wind up: 5 min Explain, step by step, the structure of the heart in order to review all that the pupils have learned in this lesson. The septum separates the two sides of the heart. Remind the pupils of the process of the exchange of gases taking place in the alveoli. The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood blood containing no oxygen to the lungs to pick up oxygen.

    The left side of the heart pumps the oxygenated blood from the lungs around the body. Ask the following questions to lead the discussion: What is the heart? What is its function? Why is it important for blood to circulate to all the parts of the body? How does the heart pump the blood? What is a heartbeat?

    Does the heart always beat at the same rate? Ask the pupils to construct a flow chart on the board to show the flow of the blood through the heart. Pupils should take turns to add one step in the correct order. For example, if the first pupil writes, Blood enters the right atrium from the body, the next one should write where the blood goes when it leaves the right atrium, and so on. Show the class a stethoscope. What is this instrument called? What is it used for? Ask: Can you describe what you heard?

    You hear two sounds during every heartbeat. Doctors call them lub-dub noises. Your pulse tells you how fast your heart is beating. The throb you feel is the blood rushing through the blood vessels with each heartbeat. During exercise, your heart beats faster in order to pump more blood. When you stop, your heart rate slows down again. Ask the pupils to list some activities that they think may increase a persons heart rate.

    Group Activity For this activity the pupils will need stop watches, stethoscopes, and their notebooks to record their observations. Arrange the pupils in groups of four or five and give each group some watches with the seconds hand. Ask them to write their prediction about what change will they observe in the heartbeat or pulse rate before and after running. Will it increase or decrease? Ask them to draw a table in their notebook to record their partners pulse rate and heartbeat before and after running.

    Ask them to record the pulse rate and heartbeat of their group members before leaving the class for the outdoor activity.

    This will be counted as the resting heart beat and pulse rate. Now take the pupils to an open area. Ask them to run on the spot for 25 seconds and then take each others pulse again. Ask the pupils to complete the table by adding the new heart and pulse rates, and to share their results with the other groups.

    Wind up: 5 min Ask them about the pulse rate. How does your pulse rate change when you do exercise or run? Why does this happen? Lesson 3: 40 min Introduction: 5 min Ask the pupils to recall what they have learned about the heart so far. Main teaching: 30 min Demonstration: Dissection of a heart Arrange for a goats heart to be bought from the butcher.

    Wear gloves and cut open the heart to show the chambers and the valves. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap after the activity. Give the pupils magnifying glasses so that they can examine the inside of the heart. After they have done this activity, and washed their hands thoroughly, ask them to perform the following role-play that will take only a few minutes.

    Role-play Show the pupils a diagram of the circulatory system and explain that they are going to turn the room into a circulatory system. Ask for volunteers to be the lungs, capillaries, left chamber of the heart, and right chamber of the heart. Discuss with them where they should stand and what their jobs will be.

    Explain to the remaining pupils that they represent the blood in the circulatory system. Ask the pupils to follow you through the classroom circulatory system, exchanging the inflated red balloons oxygen for blue balloons carbon dioxide and explain what is happening along the way. The red balloons should move from the heart to other parts of the body. The blue balloons should move from different parts of the body to the heart and lungs.

    Once everyone is back at the starting point, ask them to follow you through the sequence again, but faster, and explain that this represents a faster heartbeat. Collect all the balloons and let the pupils return to their seats. The function of the heart is to pump oxygenated blood to all parts of the body.

    It is also called pure blood. It is also called impure blood. The lungs play an important role in the circulation of blood. The exchange of gases takes place in the lungs: oxygen is absorbed into the blood and carbon dioxide is released from the blood. Answers will vary. The following are some suggested ways: 1. Eat a balanced and healthy diet. Exercise regularly or be physically active. Do not smoke. Maintain a healthy weight. Be screened by your doctor to determine your risk of heart disease.

    Know your blood pressure and cholesterol level. Reduce intake of fizzy drinks and energy drinks. Engage the pupils in a discussion in order to recall their existing knowledge about food. Why do we need food? What types of food should we eat? How does food provide energy to the body? Revise the role of the blood in providing energy to the body. Oxygenated blood is needed to produce energy from food.

    Main teaching: 60 min Exploratory activity The journey of a biscuit inside the body Show the pupils a biscuit. Ask them to draw an outline of a human body in their notebooks and mark on it the journey of this biscuit inside the body. Since this is an exploratory activity, the pupils should be given the freedom to draw their own understanding of the biscuits journey inside the body.

    Divide the pupils into small groups. Ask them to read pages 23 and 24 of the textbook and discuss with their group some questions which the teacher should write on the board in advance. These questions are basic, but they will help to build the pupils understanding of the process of digestion.

    It is the breaking down of food into substances which can be absorbed by the cells. The digestive juices help to soften the food and the acid kills harmful bacteria. It is flushed out of the body through the large intestine. Why is digestion important?

    Explain: When you eat foods such as bread, meat, and vegetables, they are not in a form that the body can use as nourishment. Food and drink must be changed into smaller molecules of nutrients before they can be absorbed into the blood and carried to cells throughout the body. Digestion is the process by which food and drink are broken down into their smallest parts, so the body can use them to build and nourish cells and to provide energy.

    The stomach The stomach, which is attached to the end of the oesophagus, is a stretchy sack, shaped like the letter J. It has three important jobs: 1. Lesson 2: 40 min Introduction: 5 min Review the key points of this topic: Each organ of the digestive system works to help in the digestion of food. What is the job of the saliva? Continue to recall the tasks of all the digestive organs. Main teaching: 5 min Bring the focus of the lesson to the role of the kidneys, pancreas and the liver by reading about them on page 24 of the textbook.

    Ask the pupils to draw and complete a table like the one shown below. Group 1 will move to station 2. Group 2 will move to station 3. Group 3 will move to station 4. Group 4 will move to station 5. Group 5 will move to station 1. In the same way, pupils will perform all the activities, moving from station to station. At the end of the activity, they will give a presentation on what they learned. Give them ten minutes to prepare for their presentations.

    Group 1 will give presentation on station 1 activity. Group 2 will give presentation on station 2 activity, and so on. You can give your input where necessary, encouraging them with prompting words, etc. In this entire process, the primary objective is that the pupils are actively involved in the learning process and are not being lectured. In all cases, do not begin to read the lesson from the textbook before you begin a discussion leading up to it.

    Reading the text comes after the discussion and brainstorming has taken place. Using the photocopy masters The worksheets are a reinforcement of the lesson and can be used for homework or classwork.

    To introduce the cell as the basic building block of life To define with examples, and to compare, unicellular and multicellular organisms To name and explain the functions of some basic organelles of animal and plant cells To compare animal and plant cells Key vocabulary: Paint or draw bricks on it to resemble a brick wall.

    Lesson 1: Bricks are the building units of this wall. Introduce the term cell. Just as a wall is made of small units called bricks, living things are made of small units called cells. They are so small that you need a microscope to view them. Animals and plants are made of cells. Cells form the basic building blocks of living things. Some cells have specialized functions. Organs are made from tissues, and systems are made from several organs working together. Main teaching: Explain that all living organisms are made up of millions of cells.

    Now cut a leaf into pieces so tiny that you can cut them no smaller. Explain that even the smallest piece of leaf is made up of thousands of cells. Introduce the terms unicellular and multicellular organisms.

    Ask the pupils to find out the meanings of the terms and share their ideas with the class. Discuss unicellular and multicellular organisms: Unicellular organisms are made up of a single cell, e. Such organisms are so tiny that they can only be observed through a microscope. Multicellular organisms are made up of many cells of different types, e.

    Such organisms are usually large in size, have specialized functions, and can actually grow in size. Direct the pupils to the prepared slides of animal and plant cells on the microscopes. They should be labelled as A and B, but not identified as plant or animal cells.

    Explain that they are going to observe two cells; cell A and cell B. Allow them to observe the slides and draw their observations in their notebooks. Ask a few pupils to share their drawings with the rest of the class. Now display the large chart of a cell on the board. Stick the cut-outs of the parts of the cell in the correct places, remembering to attach the removable labelling also.

    Finally, read and discuss the lesson on pages of the textbook. Wind up: Write some questions related to the parts of the cell and their functions on slips of paper. Put the slips inside an empty box. Tell the pupils that they are going to play Pass the parcel.

    Give the box to the first pupil and begin to clap. As soon as you stop clapping, the pupil who is holding the box should take out a slip and attempt to answer the question written on it.

    Alternatively, ask the pupils to attempt Exercise A on page 5. Lesson 2: Many new terms are introduced here, so go slowly, and help the students organize the information into a table like the one shown below. Include in it all the parts of both animal and plant cells. Part of cell e. Found in plant and animal cells. It is easy to explain the different parts of a cell with the help of a diagram.

    Draw diagrams on a large sheet of white card paper, labelling them Plant cell and Animal cell. Attach the card paper to the board and draw the two different cells using coloured markers. Make sure you label the diagrams of animal and plant cells, like these shown below: Reiterate the following: Stick them on the board one by one and ask the pupils to match them with the relevant cell parts.

    D a cell cellulose 2. C organelles a tissue 4. A cell membrane red blood cells. The amoeba is a unicellular organism that lives in water and wet soil. Cells make up living things in the same way that bricks are used to build a house. Venn diagram Features found in animal cells Features found in plant cells vacuole cell membrane cell wall nucleus cytoplasm. Organelles cell membrane chloroplast vacuole cytoplasm nucleus 5. Functions It allows certain materials to go in and out of the cell.

    It absorbs the Suns energy and helps the plant to make its food. It stores food, water, and waste substances. All the organelles are suspended or floating in it. It controls all the activities of the cell. It is best to come to class with a number of pieces already cut to size, but demonstrate on at least one piece and show the children how a piece of tin can be cut with a tin cutter. Make sure there is sufficient light in the classroom.

    The setting up of all this takes some time and patience. If the children cannot see anything at first, try again. The point of focus will vary, so experiment, by pressing on the tin to increase or decrease the height of the lens. Unit 2 The brain Teaching objectives: To emphasize that the brain is a very important organ of the body To identify its location in the body and its three main parts To describe its appearance and its structure To explain the distinct functions of the three main parts of the human brain Key vocabulary: What have you touched?

    Can you identify and describe the object that you can smell? Take away the blindfold. How were you able to recognize the objects when you could not see them? The human brain is the organ that makes us different from other living things. When you described the object that you could not see, the brain helped you to recognize, remember, and speak. When you touched an object, the brain sent signals informing you whether the object was hot or cold.

    The brain is the organ that is responsible for our: Read pages 8 to 10 of the textbook with the pupils and with their feedback, fill in the chart with facts about the brain. What is the brain? Where is it located in the body? How it is protected?

    What are neurons? Write these activities on the board. Draw three columns and name them A, B and C. At this stage do not write any other headings for these columns. Write the activities which are controlled by the cerebrum in Column A. In Column B write those activities which are controlled by the cerebellum, and in Column C, write the activities which are controlled by the medulla.

    Involve the pupils when discussing their responses. Explain that since we have to perform so many different activities, our brain has different parts to control and to help us perform these. Now, name the columns accordingly. Which part of your brain was the most active when you were listening to this poem?

    Science Fact file Book 2

    Which part of the brain helped you to decide which colour to choose? What part of the brain helped you to do this action? You swallowed the biscuit and now you are digesting it. Which part of the brain helps you to digest food? Which part of the brain helped you to do this? Feel your skull and ask the pupils to do the same. Both the brain and the spinal cord are protected by bones: Ask the pupils to put their two fists together to resemble the brain.

    Compare the brain with the computer. Some points of comparison that can be discussed are: The computer on the other hand, can do many complex tasks at the same time. The brain records human feelings and thoughts, but the computer is a machine that has no feelings. It cannot feel anger, joy, fear, etc. Try to obtain a sheeps brain from the butcher to show the class. This will give them a good idea of the appearance of the brain. Neurons are the nerve cells which make up the brain.

    They are linked together to control all of the bodys activities. Discuss the points of comparison between the computer and the human brain, mentioned in this lesson plan and in the Teachers notes. Encourage the pupils to suggest others. The pupils can use the illustration of the human brain on page 9 of the textbook as a reference to draw their own illustration.

    Answers will vary. This can be an interesting exercise for the pupils, especially if they work in pairs. They will come up with some funny outcomes of having two brains.

    The table below is a sample of possible responses. Cerebrum 1 2 3 4 5 reading a book solving a math problem writing a story listening to music eating my favourite dish Cerebellum walking jumping taking exercise running boxing Medulla breathing digesting heart beating. The heading of this project can be The cerebrum controls our feelings and actions. Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. Encourage the pupils to search the Internet to find out names of notable neuroscientists.

    You, as a teacher can also discover more about this specialized branch of biology, in order to help you discuss this topic with ease in the class. Allow the pupils to discuss the causes and effects of fainting, giving them some time to give their own opinions. Explain that sometimes people can faint when not enough oxygen or blood supply is reaching the brain.

    This is a game to improve visual short term memory skills. It is beneficial and is fun to play. Unit 3 The lungs Teaching objectives: To define respiration To explain in detail the working of the three main organs of the respiratory system To explain, using a diagram, the process of inhalation and exhalation To emphasize the harmful effects of tobacco on the health Key vocabulary: Arrange for goats lungs to be brought to the lab from the butcher before Lesson 2.

    Since this is an exploratory activity, the pupils should be given the freedom to draw their own understanding of the journey of air inside the body. Ask a few volunteers to share their ideas. Main teaching Ask the pupils to take deep breaths. Do you know where the air that you breathe in goes?

    Why do we need to breathe? All the cells in our body require oxygen. Without it, they could not move, build, reproduce, or turn food into energy.

    In fact, without oxygen, we would die! How do we get oxygen? We get oxygen from breathing in air which our blood circulates to all the parts of the body. Show them a clearly-labelled diagram of the human lungs. The diagram on page 13 of the textbook can be enlarged and shaded lightly with coloured pencils to make it more eye-catching.

    Just as the brain is an organ of the nervous system, the lungs are organs of the respiratory system. Here is a diagram of the lungs. If you could see them, they would look pink and rubbery on the outside.

    Inside they look a lot like sponges. Air comes down the trachea, or windpipe, into two large tubes called the bronchi. One bronchus goes into the left lung and the other into the right lung. Each bronchus is rather like the trunk of a tree because it has what look like branches and twigs growing from it. The smallest 'twigs' are called bronchioles. They are so tiny that they are like hair. At the end of these bronchioles there are little bunches called alveoli. These are sacs, or little bags, full of air.

    There are millions of them in the lungs, so you can imagine how very tiny they must be and what a powerful microscope you would need to look at them! Draw the pupils attention to the diaphragm on the chart. The diaphragm is a big sheet of muscle that is situated below the lungs. It helps to get air in and out of the lungs by moving up and down.

    Ask the pupils to find out the meaning of the term respiration from the dictionary or glossary and share it with the class. Ask them to read pages of the textbook, The lungs. Give them enough time to understand and absorb the content. Put them into pairs and ask them the following questions based on the text, allowing them to discuss these with their partner.

    They warm, moisten and filter the air. Tiny hairs called cilia, and a sticky substance called mucus, trap the dust and bacteria present in the air. It is a muscle that helps the lungs to expand and contract. They are smaller branches of the bronchi. Explain the process of the exchange of gases. The exchange of gases takes place in the alveoli.

    Oxygen is absorbed into the blood, while carbon dioxide passes out of the blood into the air in the alveoli. As we inhale oxygen, our lungs expand. When we exhale carbon dioxide, our lungs contract. When people breathe in, their lungs expand. Let the air out of the balloon and explain that when we breathe out, our lungs contract similarly to the way the balloon has deflated. Ask them to put their hands on their chest and breathe deeply, so that they can feel their chest moving.

    Explain effectively the functions of the diaphragm and ribs in inhalation and exhalation, with the help of a 3-D animation clip found at the various websites. Show them the goats lungs. Keep the lungs in a tub of water. Ask them to blow up the lungs using a rubber pipe and to observe how they expand and contract when they inhale or exhale.

    Alternatively, the related worksheet can be attempted. Lesson 3: Protected by: Detailed instructions for this activity are on page 12 of this guide. Engage them in a discussion about the harmful effects of smoking on the health. As soon as people become regular smokers, they become addicted to the nicotine in cigarettes. This makes them want to continue smoking.

    There are many different chemicals in cigarette smoke, some of which are poisonous, and some can cause lung cancer.

    What is passive smoking? When someone is smoking, the smoke they blow out into the air can be breathed in by anyone who is near them. The smoker is actively inhaling this poisonous smoke, while people near him are passive smokers. Although they are not smoking, they are actually inhaling the smoke of the active smoker.

    Passive smoking is as harmful as active smoking. True mucus oxygen, carbon dioxide ribcage Respiration is the process of obtaining oxygen from the air and its use by cells to produce energy. True 3.

    False 2. False 3. True 6. True diaphragm trachea alveoli or air sacs. The lungs are located within the chest and are protected by the ribcage. The main function of the lungs is to provide the body with the oxygen it needs to produce energy from food.

    Oxygen is needed to produce energy from food. Mucus is a sticky substance produced by the nose and trachea. Its function is to trap dust particles and some bacteria before the air enters the lungs. The tiny hairs in the trachea, called cilia, sweep out the dust caught in the mucus. They help to keep the lungs clean. The diaphragm is a sheet of muscle which separates the lungs from the abdomen. It helps the lungs to expand and contract when we breathe in and out.

    Working model of the lungs Procedure a Gather the materials listed on page 8 of this Teaching Guide and refer to the diagram on page 18 of the textbook.

    Use the tape to make an airtight seal around the area where the tubing and the hose connector meet. Place a balloon around each of the remaining two openings of the hose connector. Tightly wrap the rubber bands round the places where the balloons and hose connector meet.

    The seals should be airtight. Place the balloons and hose connector structure inside the bottle, threading the plastic tubing through the neck of the bottle. Use the tape to seal the opening where the plastic tubing goes through the narrow opening of the bottle at the neck. The seal should be airtight. Gently pull down on the balloon from the knot. This should cause air to flow into the balloons within your lung model. What did you observe? Release the balloon with the knot and watch as the air is expelled from your lung.

    Your breath contains water vapour.

    When this water vapour comes into contact with a cold surface, such as a windowpane, it condenses, forming many small water droplets on the glass. People breathe in water when it accidentally goes into the windpipe rather than into the food pipe. Discuss any experiences pupils may have had of accidentally breathing in water.

    The pupils should prepare their own anti-smoking posters. The health of our lungs and the entire respiratory system is affected by the quality of the air we breathe.

    In addition to oxygen, this air contains other substances such as pollutants, which can be harmful. Some health problems caused by air pollution are difficulty in breathing, wheezing, and coughing. Unit 4 The human heart Teaching objectives: To introduce the heart as a muscular organ which pumps blood around the body To explain the structure of the heart and identify its components To introduce, step by step, the basic process of the circulation of the blood in the heart Key vocabulary: Invite a heart specialist as a guest speaker to talk to the pupils about some heart disorders and to give some practical advice on how to help keep the heart healthy.

    Model this to them. Ask them which organ in the body is about the size of a fist. The heart is about the size of your fist and is located between your lungs. It is a muscular pump whose function is to pump blood to all parts of the body. The blood carries oxygen from the air we breathe, and nutrients from the food we eat, to all of the cells of the body. The blood travels through tubes called blood vessels. There are two kinds of blood vessels, arteries and veins.

    Sometimes we can see the arteries and veins in our arms and hands. Help the pupils find their pulse by placing the index and middle fingers of their right hands on their left wrists, on the side nearest to the thumb. This could be challenging for some pupils, and you will have to circulate and help them. If they cannot find it in the wrist, see if they can find it in the throat. Once all of them have found their pulse, ask them to count the number of times the pulse beats in 15 seconds.

    Record the numbers in a table on the board. Ask the pupils to predict what will happen to their pulse rate when they exercise. Will it get faster, slower, or stay the same? The pulse rate increases while exercising. Even in your sleep, the heart keeps beating, or pumping blood. If it stopped, a person would quickly die. The heart is divided into two sides, separated by the septum. The left side of the heart is filled with oxygen-rich oxygenated blood, while the right side of the heart is filled with oxygen-poor deoxygenated blood.

    Each side of your heart is divided further into two chambers known as the atrium, and the ventricle, which means there is a total of four chambers in the heart. Read pages 19 and 20 of the textbook.

    The septum separates the two sides of the heart. Remind the pupils of the process of the exchange of gases taking place in the alveoli. The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood blood containing no oxygen to the lungs to pick up oxygen.

    The left side of the heart pumps the oxygenated blood from the lungs around the body. Ask the following questions to lead the discussion: What is the heart?

    What is its function? Why is it important for blood to circulate to all the parts of the body? How does the heart pump the blood? What is a heartbeat? Does the heart always beat at the same rate?

    Ask the pupils to construct a flow chart on the board to show the flow of the blood through the heart. Pupils should take turns to add one step in the correct order.

    For example, if the first pupil writes, Blood enters the right atrium from the body, the next one should write where the blood goes when it leaves the right atrium, and so on. Show the class a stethoscope. What is this instrument called? What is it used for? Can you describe what you heard?

    You hear two sounds during every heartbeat. Doctors call them lub-dub noises. Your pulse tells you how fast your heart is beating. The throb you feel is the blood rushing through the blood vessels with each heartbeat. During exercise, your heart beats faster in order to pump more blood.

    When you stop, your heart rate slows down again. Ask the pupils to list some activities that they think may increase a persons heart rate. Group Activity For this activity the pupils will need stop watches, stethoscopes, and their notebooks to record their observations. Arrange the pupils in groups of four or five and give each group some watches with the seconds hand. Ask them to write their prediction about what change will they observe in the heartbeat or pulse rate before and after running.

    Will it increase or decrease? Explain to the pupils that they have to take each other's pulse. Ask them to draw a table in their notebook to record their partners pulse rate and heartbeat before and after running.

    Ask them to record the pulse rate and heartbeat of their group members before leaving the class for the outdoor activity. This will be counted as the resting heart beat and pulse rate. Now take the pupils to an open area.

    Ask them to run on the spot for 25 seconds and then take each others pulse again. Ask the pupils to complete the table by adding the new heart and pulse rates, and to share their results with the other groups.

    How does your pulse rate change when you do exercise or run? Why does this happen? Dissection of a heart Arrange for a goats heart to be bought from the butcher.

    Wear gloves and cut open the heart to show the chambers and the valves. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap after the activity.

    Give the pupils magnifying glasses so that they can examine the inside of the heart. After they have done this activity, and washed their hands thoroughly, ask them to perform the following role-play that will take only a few minutes.

    Role-play Show the pupils a diagram of the circulatory system and explain that they are going to turn the room into a circulatory system. Ask for volunteers to be the lungs, capillaries, left chamber of the heart, and right chamber of the heart.

    Discuss with them where they should stand and what their jobs will be. Explain to the remaining pupils that they represent the blood in the circulatory system. Ask the pupils to follow you through the classroom circulatory system, exchanging the inflated red balloons oxygen for blue balloons carbon dioxide and explain what is happening along the way.

    The red balloons should move from the heart to other parts of the body. The blue balloons should move from different parts of the body to the heart and lungs.

    Once everyone is back at the starting point, ask them to follow you through the sequence again, but faster, and explain that this represents a faster heartbeat.

    Collect all the balloons and let the pupils return to their seats. The function of the heart is to pump oxygenated blood to all parts of the body. It is also called pure blood.

    It is also called impure blood. The lungs play an important role in the circulation of blood. The exchange of gases takes place in the lungs: The following are some suggested ways: Eat a balanced and healthy diet. Exercise regularly or be physically active.

    Do not smoke. Maintain a healthy weight. Be screened by your doctor to determine your risk of heart disease. Know your blood pressure and cholesterol level. Reduce intake of fizzy drinks and energy drinks. Unit 5 Digestion Teaching objectives: To explain the digestive system To identify all the organs that make up the digestive system and explain their functions To explain the digestion process with the help of a diagram Key vocabulary: Lesson 1 Introduction: Engage the pupils in a discussion in order to recall their existing knowledge about food.

    Why do we need food? What types of food should we eat? How does food provide energy to the body? Revise the role of the blood in providing energy to the body. Oxygenated blood is needed to produce energy from food.

    Ask them to draw an outline of a human body in their notebooks and mark on it the journey of this biscuit inside the body. Since this is an exploratory activity, the pupils should be given the freedom to draw their own understanding of the biscuits journey inside the body.

    Divide the pupils into small groups. Ask them to read pages 23 and 24 of the textbook and discuss with their group some questions which the teacher should write on the board in advance.

    These questions are basic, but they will help to build the pupils understanding of the process of digestion. It is the breaking down of food into substances which can be absorbed by the cells. Where is food stored in the body? The digestive juices help to soften the food and the acid kills harmful bacteria. It is flushed out of the body through the large intestine.

    Why is digestion important? When you eat foods such as bread, meat, and vegetables, they are not in a form that the body can use as nourishment. Food and drink must be changed into smaller molecules of nutrients before they can be absorbed into the blood and carried to cells throughout the body. Digestion is the process by which food and drink are broken down into their smallest parts, so the body can use them to build and nourish cells and to provide energy.

    The stomach The stomach, which is attached to the end of the oesophagus, is a stretchy sack, shaped like the letter J. It has three important jobs: Each organ of the digestive system works to help in the digestion of food. What is the job of the saliva? Continue to recall the tasks of all the digestive organs. Ask the pupils to draw and complete a table like the one shown below. Organ kidneys pancreas liver Function. The information in the Do you know?

    Explain that every morsel of food we eat has to be broken down into nutrients that can be absorbed by the body, which is why it takes many hours to fully digest food. To assess their understanding of the digestive system, ask the pupils to complete Exercise A and the related worksheet. Ask the pupils to correct the sequence.

    The tongue pushes the food into the throat, from where it passes into a tube, called the oesophagus. It is then pushed into the stomach which works like a mixer. The stomach releases hydrochloric acid which kills harmful bacteria. The food now enters a long, narrow tube called the small intestine. Here, more juices are added to the food by other organs like the liver, the pancreas and the gall bladder. Now the food gets absorbed into the blood, while the waste material is passed into the large intestine.

    We need to digest food because food cannot go straight to the cells. It has to be broken down into simpler substances so that it can be absorbed into the blood easily. The juices and hydrochloric acid help to soften the food. The acid kills the harmful bacteria present in the food.

    These juices make the food even softer and simpler. Then the food is absorbed into the blood through the walls of the small intestine.

    Saliva helps to moisten and soften the food and starts the digestion of starches. The kidneys help to remove the waste materials and excess water from the body. The digestive juices in the small intestine come from other organs such as the liver, pancreas and gall bladder.

    The pupils should draw a neat, clearly-labelled diagram of the digestive system. The pupils will enjoy this piece of writing where they will describe the journey of a sandwich bite inside the body. It would be helpful if the teacher could provide them with an opening line, e.

    I suddenly felt myself being picked up and crushed, and then pushed into a deep, dark throat Explain that saliva is produced by the salivary glands in the mouth. Saliva lubricates the mouth, helping us to chew, swallow and speak.

    It is important for the digestion of food because it softens and moistens the food before it is pushed into the oesophagus. Unit 6 Looking after yourself Teaching objectives: To create an understanding of microorganisms To distinguish between some common useful and harmful microorganisms To classify microorganisms To explain how microorganisms can enter the body To identify ways of preserving food Key vocabulary: Invite a health professional to talk to the pupils and answer their questions about illnesses e.

    Micro means extremely tiny. A microscope is an instrument that has lenses which can magnify an object so that it is possible to see it; since it is so small, it cannot be seen with the naked eye. This instrument helped in the discovery of cells and other microorganisms.

    What are microorganisms? Microorganisms are very tiny living things. They are so small that they can only be seen through a microscope. They are present everywhere: Some microorganisms are harmful to us, but others are helpful. There are four types of microorganism: We will observe a drop of water under the microscope.

    Write down your predictions of what you think the organism will look like. Now put the drop of water onto the glass slide. Put the cover slip onto the drop of water and adjust it under the microscope. Invite the pupils, one by one, to look through the microscope, drawing their attention to the shape and movement of the microorganisms on the slide.

    Ask them to draw what they see in their science notebooks. Nowadays, children are familiar with the term germs. Many diseases are caused by germs. Germ is a word commonly used for harmful microorganisms. What are infectious diseases? Some diseases spread through contact or through other organisms.

    You can become infected by touching, eating, drinking or breathing something that contains harmful bacteria. Microorganisms can also spread diseases through animal and insect bites.

    Read pages 27 and 28 of the textbook. What is meant by the term microorganism? What is the term more commonly used for harmful microorganisms? How can microorganisms harm us? How are infectious diseases spread? Explain that not all microorganisms are harmful. Read the Do you know? The bacteria turn the sugar in the milk into acid. The acid makes the milk go thick and sterilizes it.

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    These bacteria feed on the dead, rotting leaves, breaking them down into nutrients. These nutrients are important as they keep the soil healthy. Plants grow well in healthy soil. Show the pupils some examples of mouldy food; bread, apples and cheese, and ask them what has caused these foods to decay. Microorganisms cause food to decay. Discuss the effects of eating mouldy food. Microorganisms grow and reproduce on food and can be a cause of food poisoning.

    Read pages 29 and 30 of the textbook and discuss the contents with the pupils. Explain the importance of preserving food, and ways of doing this. Discuss some ways to prevent food poisoning.

    Washing hands before and after preparing food, checking expiry date of foods, covering food that is kept in the fridge, are some preventive measures that could be discussed.

    Moulds are visible. However, other microorganisms which cause food to go bad, e. Since many microorganisms release large quantities of spores into the air and some people are allergic to these, foods should be kept in closed plastic bags or containers. Caution the pupils that food in plastic bags or containers should never be heated in microwave ovens. Group activity Now divide the pupils into six groups.

    Four groups should work on the four types of microorganism. The fifth group should work on how microorganisms enter the body and the sixth group should work on ways of keeping healthy. Assign each group its task. Give the pupils time to read about or research their assigned topic. Ask the pupils to prepare group presentations. Provide them with materials to do this; they may need large sheets of card and markers to make posters. Call each group in turn to share what they have learned about their assigned topic.

    After each presentation, ask the pupils in the audience to summarize the presentation. Name some helpful bacteria. In what ways are some microorganisms helpful to humans? How can bacteria cause food poisoning? Give any two examples of bacteria that cause disease.

    How can these diseases be prevented? In what ways can food be preserved? Typhoid is caused by a microorganism called bacteria. The study of microorganisms is known as microbiology. Athletes foot is caused by fungi. A useful type of bacteria is used in making yogurt. Milk is preserved by a process called pasteurization. Protozoan is a unicellular organism, while fungus is a multicellular organism. A mushroom is an example of an edible fungi.

    Food can be preserved by freezing, canning through chemical preservation. Harmful microorganisms are commonly called germs. Microorganisms are tiny living things that can only be seen through a microscope. Something that is so small that it can only be seen through a microscope is called microscopic. If food is not preserved, it decays and becomes inedible. Any other suitable answer should be accepted. Encourage the pupils to find out about these famous scientists.

    They can do project work on the discoveries made by them. It is important that the teacher, too has some knowledge of the achievements of these scientists.

    This will ease class discussion. Answers to Worksheet Unit 6 A 1 Bacteria can spread from one food to another. Unit 7 Living things Teaching objectives: To classify living things on the basis of common characteristics To highlight the seven characteristics of living things nutrition, respiration, excretion, sensitivity, movement, growth, and reproduction To explain that the ways in which living organisms live and behave reflect these characteristics Key vocabulary: How does something in the world qualify as a living thing?

    Show the pupils a small rock: Is a rock a living thing? Why or why not? Do rocks move? Gravity certainly moves them and so can an earthquake, but this movement is not self-directed. Do rocks grow? Do they breathe? Continue asking questions on these lines. Give the pupils some time to think and then discuss their answers.

    Accept all answers but try to steer them towards ideas that distinguish between living and non-living. Lead this into a discussion of what the characteristics of living things are. Help the pupils discover that these characteristics are nutrition, respiration, reproduction, sensitivity, growth, excretion, and movement. Explain that the focus of this unit is the seven characteristics that all living things, small and large, must have.

    After giving the pupils some time to finish the matrix, discuss any grey areas with them. Do not highlight right or wrong answers, rather focus on the thinking process and the backing up of opinions. If you think a rock grows, what makes you think so? Sedimentary rocks do grow, but only in size, they do not have any cells that can reproduce or multiply. Remind them throughout this discussion that a living thing must have all the seven characteristics.

    Ask each pupil to name one living and one non-living thing. Write their contributions on the board. Read pages 34 to 36 of the textbook. Divide the class into seven groups. Each group should be given one characteristic of living things to work on. Each group will read about its assigned characteristic in the book and present the information to the whole class. What characteristics do all living things have in common?

    Do any non-living things share some characteristics of a living thing? Which ones? Do all living things move? Which non-living things move? How is the movement of living things different from that of non-living things? What kinds of living things move? What kinds do not move? Why do living things move? Do plants move? Do all living things eat? Plants do not eat, but they need energy.

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