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He felt helpless and out of control. After returning from Vietnam, Steve had difficulty sleeping, lost interest in his hobbies, isolated himself from family and friends, and felt helpless and sad.
Even 40 years later, he can still see himself in the rice paddy, watching in horror as the grenade hits his friend, amputating his arm. Every night he wakes in yet another cold sweat and with a racing heart—unable to breathe, as the nightmare occurs again.
Steve cannot watch fireworks—he breaks out in a cold sweat and feels dizzy. He drops to the ground at the sound of a helicopter, reacting as if he were again under attack. He sleeps only 4 hours a night. Although employed for many years, he had many interpersonal conflicts with co-workers and his boss, and recently he was forced into early retirement.
He has no friends except for his immediate family and other veterans who served in Vietnam. Derek is 7 years old. His parents compensate for his high level of energy by involving him in lots of physical activities soccer, Tiger Cub Scouts, karate.
He loves being with other children, but they often shun him because he cannot follow simple social rules. Derek had a wonderfully understanding first-grade teacher. But now Derek is in second grade, and the new teacher does not allow workstations. She believes that he must learn to sit like all the other children.
Marcie just started college. She grew up in a small town but enrolled in a large university far from home. Her family has few financial resources, and a university scholarship was her only opportunity for college. She was reluctant to leave home, but her family and teachers encouraged her because this was a tremendous opportunity.
She believes that she is a failure for being unable to adjust and is afraid to tell her parents. She barely talks to her roommate, who is very concerned about the change in her behavior.
Marcie no longer showers. Sometimes she does not get out of bed and goes for several days without eating. These behaviors are considered abnormal because most people do not want to take their life, and they sleep more than 4 hours a night. Most children are able to sit still in a classroom.
Although often unrecognized, psychological disorders exist in substantial numbers of people across all ages, races, ethnic groups, cultures, and in both sexes. Furthermore, they cause great suffering and impair academic, occupational, and social functioning. Defining abnormality is challenging because behaviors must be considered in context. For example, Donna and Matthew were very much in love. They had been married for 25 years and often remarked that they were not just husband and wife but also best friends.
Then Matthew died suddenly, and Donna felt overwhelming sadness. She was unable to eat, cried uncontrollably at times, and started to isolate herself from others. Her usually vivacious personality disappeared. When a loved one dies, feelings of grief and sadness are common, even expected.
A theme throughout this book is that abnormal behavior must always be considered in context. Normal vs. But sometimes identifying behavior as abnormal is not clear-cut. Their weight would be considered abnormally low or high. For abnormal psychology, defining abnormal behavior as merely being away from normal assumes that deviations on both sides of average are negative and in need of alteration or intervention.
This assumption is often incorrect. Specifically, we must first ask whether simply being different is abnormal. Many people deviate from the average in some way. Yao Ming is 7 feet 5 inches tall and weighs pounds—far above average in both height and weight. However, his deviant stature does not affect him negatively. To the contrary, he was a successful and highly paid basketball player in the National Basketball Association.
Mariah Carey has an abnormal vocal range—she is one of a few singers whose voice spans five octaves. Because of her abnormal psychology: historical and modern perspectives different ability, she has sold millions of CDs. Each of these individuals has abilities that distinguish him or her from the general public; that is, they are away from normal.
Furthermore, their unusual abilities do not cause distress or appear to impair their daily functioning as appears to be the case for Steve, Derek, and Marcie. In summary, being different is not the same as being psychologically abnormal. However, these differences are not abnormalities and have resulted in positive contributions to society. When the definition of abnormal behavior broadens from simply being different to behaving differently, we often use the term deviance.
Deviant behaviors differ from prevailing societal standards. Young people loved them but their parents were appalled.
The Beatles looked, behaved, and sounded deviant in the context of the prevailing cultural norms. In , they were considered outrageous. Today their music, dress, and behavior appear rather tame. Was their behavior abnormal? They looked different and acted differently, but their looks and behavior did no harm to themselves or others.
Simply put, a behavior can be problematic or not problematic depending on the environment in which it occurs. Some people change an environment to accommodate a behavior in the same way that buildings are modified to assure accessibility by everyone. They did not see his activity as a problem but simply as behavior that needed to be accommodated. In contrast, his second-grade teacher expected Derek to fit into a nonadaptable environment.
When we attempt to understand behavior, it is critical to consider the context in which the behavior occurs. Sometimes the standards of one group are at odds with those of another group. Adolescents, for example, often deliberately behave very differently than their parents do they violate expected standards or norms as a result of their need to individuate separate from their parents and be part of their peer group.
In this instance, deviation from the norms of one group involves conformity to those of another. Like family norms, cultural traditions and practices also affect behavior in many ways.
Would you like to change to the United States site? Ann M. Kring , Sheri L. Abnormal Psychology: Students learn that psychopathology is best understood by considering multiple perspectives and that these varying perspectives provide the clearest accounting of the causes of these disorders as well as the best possible treatments.
View Instructor Companion Site. Contact your Rep for all inquiries. View Student Companion Site. She received her PhD. Kring's broad research interests are in emotion and psychopathology. Specific interests include the emotional features of schizophrenia, assessing negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and the linkage between cognition and emotion in schizophrenia.
In addition, Dr. Kring studies emotion in healthy individuals, with a focus on individual differences in expressive behavior, gender differences in emotion, and the linkages between personality, social context, and emotion. Sheri L. Over the past decade, she has conducted research on psychosocial facets of bipolar disorder.
Her work has been funded by the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression and by the National Institute of Mental Health, and her findings have been published in a number of journals, including the Journal of Abnormal Psychology and the American Journal of Psychiatry. Undetected country.
In addition, Dr. Kring studies emotion in healthy individuals, with a focus on individual differences in expressive behavior, gender differences in emotion, and the linkages between personality, social context, and emotion. Sheri L.
Over the past decade, she has conducted research on psychosocial facets of bipolar disorder. Her work has been funded by the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression and by the National Institute of Mental Health, and her findings have been published in a number of journals, including the Journal of Abnormal Psychology and the American Journal of Psychiatry.
Undetected country. NO YES. Read an Excerpt Excerpt 1: PDF Excerpt 2: Selected type: Added to Your Shopping Cart. Evaluation Copy Request an Evaluation Copy. Johnson ISBN: View on WileyPlus. Editions Previous Next. Student View Student Companion Site. About the Author Dr.